Three Modern Iranian Seminarian Perspectives

by Lloyd Ridgeon


Format: Royal Hardback
Published: April 2021
Pages: 320
ISBN: 9781909942561


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No nation has suffered the same extent of sartorial conflict and confusion as Iran during the modern period, caused by the impact of Western views on the hijab in the 19th century, the decree to unveil that was issued by Riza Shah Pahlavi in 1936, and the imposition of the veil in the wake of the Islamic Revolution in 1979.

The differences of opinion among seminarians on the hijab in the Islamic Republic of Iran is undertaken herein with a particular focus on three representatives: Murtaza Mutahhari, who held veiling to be compulsory; Ahmad Qabil, who argued for the desirability of the hijab; and Muhsin Kadivar, who considers it neither necessary nor desirable.

The views of the three scholars are contextualised within the framework of ‘new religious thinking’ which is usually understood as a development in jurisprudence in post-Khomeini Iran.


Lloyd Ridgeon is a Reader in Islamic Studies and Head of Theology and Religious Studies at the University of Glasgow. He is the author of Jawanmardi: A Sufi Code of Honour (2011) and editor of Javanmardi: The Ethics and Practice of Persianate Perfection (2018).